Sherry Ryan and James A. Throgmorton. 2003. Transportation Research, Part D 8: 37-52.
This paper examines two land developments in the cities of Freiburg (Germany) and Chula Vista (California) with the purpose of comparing their transportation and land use planning institutions, processes, and actions for the importance placed on achieving sustainability. Planning practitioners in both places are committed to concepts of sustainability, but their respective attempts to achieve sustainability differ dramatically. Freiburg is pursuing relatively high density land development in conjunction with transit service, while Chula Vista is pursuing relatively low-density, auto-oriented land development patterns. Future research should focus primarily on developing quantitative criteria that could be used to compare the sustainability of the two cities, including calculation of each citys ecological footprint.